His father was a master harness maker, and his mother was the daughter of a harness maker, though she was better educated than most women of her social class. Pietism was an evangelical Lutheran movement that emphasized conversion, reliance on divine grace, the experience of religious emotions, and personal devotion involving regular Bible study, prayer, and introspection. Leibniz — was then very influential in German universities. But Kant was also exposed to a range of German and British critics of Wolff, and there were strong doses of Aristotelianism and Pietism represented in the philosophy faculty as well.
Ideas such as God, freedom, immortality, the world, first beginning, and final end have only a regulative function for knowledge, since they cannot find fulfilling instances among objects of experience. With Hegel, the immediacy of the subject-object relation itself is shown to be illusory.
So-called immediate perception therefore lacks the certainty of immediacy itself, a certainty that must be deferred to the working out of a complete system of experience. However, later thinkers point out that Hegel's logic pre-supposes concepts, such as identity and negation see Hegelwhich cannot themselves be accepted as immediately given, and which therefore must be accounted for in some other, non-dialectical way.
The later nineteenth century is the age of modernity as an achieved reality, where science and technology, including networks of mass communication and transportation, reshape human perceptions. There is no clear distinction, then, between the natural and the artificial in experience.
Indeed, many proponents of postmodernism challenge the viability of such a distinction tout court, seeing in achieved modernism the emergence of a problem the philosophical tradition has repressed.
A consequence of achieved modernism is what postmodernists might refer to as de-realization. De-realization affects both the subject and the objects of experience, such that their sense of identity, constancy, and substance is upset or dissolved.
Important precursors to this notion are found in Kierkegaard, Marx and Nietzsche. In this sense, society has become a realization of abstract thought, held together by an artificial and all-pervasive medium speaking for everyone and for no one.
In Marx, on the other hand, we have an analysis of the fetishism of commodities Marx— where objects lose the solidity of their use value and become spectral figures under the aspect of exchange value.
Their ghostly nature results from their absorption into a network of social relations, where their values fluctuate independently of their corporeal being.
Human subjects themselves experience this de-realization because commodities are products of their labor. Workers paradoxically lose their being in realizing themselves, and this becomes emblematic for those professing a postmodern sensibility.
However, with the notion of the true world, he says, we have also done away with the apparent one. What is left is neither real nor apparent, but something in between, and therefore something akin to the virtual reality of more recent vintage. The notion of a collapse between the real and the apparent is suggested in Nietzsche's first book, The Birth of Tragedy Nietzschewhere he presents Greek tragedy as a synthesis of natural art impulses represented by the gods Apollo and Dionysus.
Where Apollo is the god of beautiful forms and images, Dionysus is the god of frenzy and intoxication, under whose sway the spell of individuated existence is broken in a moment of undifferentiated oneness with nature.
While tragic art is life-affirming in joining these two impulses, logic and science are built upon Apollonian representations that have become frozen and lifeless. Hence, Nietzsche believes only a return of the Dionysian art impulse can save modern society from sterility and nihilism.
This interpretation presages postmodern concepts of art and representation, and also anticipates postmodernists' fascination with the prospect of a revolutionary moment auguring a new, anarchic sense of community.
In order to be responsible we must assume that we are the cause of our actions, and this cause must hold over time, retaining its identity, so that rewards and punishments are accepted as consequences for actions deemed beneficial or detrimental to others Nietzsche;, Thus logic is born from the demand to adhere to common social norms which shape the human herd into a society of knowing and acting subjects.
In this text, Nietzsche puts forward the hypothesis that scientific concepts are chains of metaphors hardened into accepted truths.That postmodernism is indefinable is a truism. However, it can be described as a set of critical, strategic and rhetorical practices employing concepts such as difference, repetition, the trace, the simulacrum, and hyperreality to destabilize other concepts such as presence, identity, historical progress, epistemic certainty, and the univocity of meaning.
Online Library of Liberty. * The loss to political philosophy is irreparable; but it is perhaps not so great after all, as Kant’s Edition: The second Essay discusses the Principles of Political Right in connection with the Relation of Theory to Practice in politics.
It was written in . Immanuel Kant (–) is the central figure in modern philosophy. He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism, set the terms for much of nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, and continues to exercise a significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields.
How to Write a Good Interpretive Essay in Political Philosophy Developing Your Topic A good interpretive essay in political philosophy is not a summary of what is. Although there are many available introductions to Kant’s political thought, current students will want to choose relatively recent works that reflect earlyst-century consensus views about the status of Kant’s political philosophy.
For a number of reasons, Kant’s political thought was. Immanuel Kant (–) is the central figure in modern philosophy. He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism, set the terms for much of nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, and continues to exercise a significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields.